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TMJ in Children

TMJ in Children: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) or temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is commonly associated with adults, but it can also affect children. TMJ issues in children can be concerning for parents, as they can impact the child’s oral health, well-being, and overall quality of life. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for TMJ in children is crucial for early intervention and effective management.

In this article, we will explore TMJ in children, including its potential causes, warning signs, and the best approaches for pediatric treatment.

Causes of TMJ in Children:

TMJ issues in children can have various underlying causes, some of which include:

  1. Jaw Misalignment: Abnormal jaw growth or jaw misalignment can lead to TMJ problems in children.
  2. Teeth Grinding and Clenching: Bruxism, or teeth grinding and clenching, is common in children and can exert excessive pressure on the TMJ, contributing to TMJ discomfort.
  3. Injury: Trauma to the jaw or face, such as from a sports-related injury or accident, can result in TMJ problems in children.
  4. Stress and Anxiety: Emotional stress and anxiety can cause children to clench their jaws or grind their teeth, leading to TMJ symptoms.
  5. Dental Issues: Dental problems, such as malocclusion (misaligned teeth), can impact the functioning of the jaw and contribute to TMJ issues.

Symptoms of TMJ in Children:

Identifying TMJ symptoms in children can be challenging, as children may not always express their discomfort clearly. Some common warning signs of TMJ issues in children include:

  1. Jaw Pain or Tenderness: Complaints of jaw pain or tenderness around the jaw joint area.
  2. Difficulty Chewing: Difficulty or discomfort while chewing food.
  3. Limited Jaw Movement: Restricted jaw movement or difficulty opening or closing the mouth fully.
  4. Clicking or Popping Sounds: Clicking, popping, or grinding sounds when the child moves their jaw.
  5. Ear Pain: Earache or pain in the ear, which can be related to TMJ issues.
  6. Headaches: Frequent headaches, particularly in the temple or forehead regions.
  7. Facial Pain: Complaints of pain or discomfort in the face, especially around the jawline.

Treatment Options for TMJ in Children:

  1. Observation: In some cases, TMJ symptoms in children may resolve on their own. For mild and occasional symptoms, observation and conservative management may be sufficient.
  2. Nightguards or Splints: Custom-made nightguards or splints can be prescribed to protect the teeth from grinding and clenching, reducing TMJ strain.
  3. Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers or anti-inflammatory medications may be recommended to manage TMJ discomfort.
  4. Stress Management: If stress or anxiety is contributing to TMJ symptoms, stress management techniques and relaxation exercises may be helpful.
  5. Physical Therapy: Physical therapy exercises can be beneficial in strengthening the jaw muscles and improving jaw movement.
  6. Dental Treatments: Addressing underlying dental issues, such as malocclusion, through orthodontic treatments can improve TMJ function.
  7. Lifestyle Modifications: Encouraging healthy habits, such as avoiding hard or chewy foods, promoting good posture, and limiting screen time, can aid in TMJ management.


TMJ issues in children are a real concern that can impact their oral health and overall well-being. Recognizing the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for TMJ in children is crucial for early intervention and effective management. If your child exhibits signs of TMJ discomfort, it is essential to consult a pediatric dentist or healthcare professional experienced in TMJ disorders for a thorough evaluation and personalized treatment plan. With the right approach and proper care, you can help your child find relief from TMJ symptoms and ensure their healthy development and well-being.


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